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VBA Multiple (Nested) If Statements

This tutorial will show you how to use nested If statements in VBA.

If statements allow you to test for a single condition in VBA to see if the condition is True or False, and depending on the answer, the code will move in the direction of the true statement or the false statement.

A Single IF statement

Sub TestIf
   Dim x as Integer
   x = 10
   If x = 10 then
'if x is 10, the condition is true
      MsgBox x is 10"
   Else
'if x is not 10, the condition is false
      Msgbox "x is not 10"
   End If
End Sub

Nested IFs Explained

A Nested If allows you to put multiple conditions INSIDE each of the True and/or False statements of the original If.

Sub TestNestedIf()
Dim x as Integer
Dim y as Integer
Dim z as Integer
x = 10
y = 9
z = 8
If x = 10 Then
'if x is 10, the condition is true so test for y
   If y = 9 Then
       MsgBox "y is 9"
   Else
'if y is not 9, the condition is false
       Msgbox "y is not 9"
   End If 
Else
'if x is not 10 then the condition is false, so lets' test for z
   If z = 8 Then 
      MsgBox "z is 8" 
   Else 
'if z is not 8, the condition is false 
      Msgbox "z is not 8" 
   End If 
'another End If is needed to close the original if
End If
End Sub

Indenting your code when you write it always good practice as it makes the code easy to read and follow when you have to come back to it at some stage, or when another programmer has to read it.

We could also create a user designed function (UDF) and call the values of some cells from Excel into the function using parameters.

Function GetIf(x as Integer, y as Integer, z as Integer) as String
   If x = 10 Then 
'if x is 10, the condition is true so test for y 
      If y = 9 Then 
         GetIf= "y is 9" 
      Else 
'if y is not 9, the condition is false 
         GetIf="y is not 9" 
      End If 
   Else 
'if x is not 10 then the condition is false, so lets' test for z 
      If z = 8 then 
           GetIf="z is 8"
      Else 
'if z is not 8, the condition is false 
         GetIf="z is not 8" 
      End If 
'another End If is needed to close the original if 
End If 
End Function

vba nested if

Nested If Practical Example

Consider the following function:

Function GetDiscount(dblPrice As Double) As Double
   If dblPrice >= 1000 Then
'if the price is greater than 1000, assign a discount
      If dblPrice >= 2000 Then
'if greater than 2000, give 10% discount
         GetDiscount = dblPrice * 0.1
      Else
'otherwise give 5% discount
         GetDiscount = dblPrice * 0.05
      End If
'if the price is not greater than 1000
   Else
'if greater than 500, give 2.5% discount
      If dblPrice >= 500 Then
          GetDiscount = dblPrice * 0.025
      Else
'otherwise no discount
         GetDiscount = 0
      End If
'another End If is needed to close the original if
End If
End Function

Using this Function in an Excel sheet, we can test to see the total price for an order, and apply different discounts depending on that total.

vba nested ifs example

Using ElseIf

ElseIf enables us to simplify your code as it only moved down to the second if statement if the first one returns a false.

Function GetDiscount(dblPrice As Double) As Double
'use else if to cut down on writing code
   If dblPrice >= 2000 Then
      GetDiscount = dblPrice * 0.1
   ElseIf dblPrice >= 1000 Then
      GetDiscount = dblPrice * 0.075
   ElseIf dblPrice >= 500 Then
      GetDiscount = dblPrice * 0.05
   ElseIf dblPrice >= 200 Then
      GetDiscount = dblPrice * 0.025
   ElseIf dblPrice >= 100 Then
      GetDiscount = dblPrice * 0.01
   Else
      GetDiscount = 0
End If
End Function

if else example

Using a Case Statement

We can also use a Case Statement to achieve the same effect.

Function GetDiscount(dblPrice As Double) As Double
   Select Case dblPrice
'this case statement has 6 different discount levels
   Case Is >= 2000
      GetDiscount = dblPrice * 0.1
   Case Is >= 1000
      GetDiscount = dblPrice * 0.075
   Case Is >= 500
      GetDiscount = dblPrice * 0.05
   Case Is >= 200
      GetDiscount = dblPrice * 0.025
   Case Is >= 100
      GetDiscount = dblPrice * 0.01
   Case Else
      GetDiscount = 0
   End Select
End Function

vba if case example

 

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