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This tutorial will teach you how to define object variables using the Set statement in VBA.
Defining Object Variables
Objects are the cornerstone of Microsoft Office – without objects, we cannot achieve anything. In Excel, objects include the Workbook, Worksheet or Range Objects. In Microsoft Word, examples are the Document or Table object. Each object has a variety of Properties and Methods that can be programmed to control the behavior of that object.
Declaring the Object Variable
Before we can reference the object in code, and therefore control the object, we need to declare the object. We can do this using the Dim Statement.
Dim wkb as Workbook Dim wks as Worksheet Dim Rng as Range Dim wdDoc as Document Dim wdTbl as Table Dim shp as Shape
This Dim declaration can occur inside a procedure:
or outside a procedure at the module-level:
If the variable is declared at the module-level (outside the procedure), the variable can be used throughout the module.
If the object variable is declared with the Public statement then the variable can be used throughout the VBA Project:
Once you have declared the object, you need to assign a value to the object. This must be done using the Set statement and can only be done within a Procedure.
Sub SetObjects() Set wkb = ActiveWorkbook Set wks = Sheet1 Set rng = Range("A1:G4") End Sub
Note: This is different than assigning values to non-object variables. You MUST use the Set statement to assign the object to the variable. If you do not, you’ll receive an error:
Once you have assigned a value to the object, you can then write code to control the behavior or manipulate the object.
Object Examples in Excel
Once you have declared a workbook variable, you can then assign a workbook to that object and use the Properties and Methods available to manipulate that object. In the example below we are going to save a workbook.
Sub WorkbookObject() 'declare the workbook object Dim wkb as Workbook 'assign an unsaved workbook to the object Set wkb = Workbooks("Book1") 'save the workbook wkb.SaveAs "C:\data\testbook.xlsx" 'close the workbook wkb.close 'remember to release the object Set wkb = Nothing End Sub
Similarly you can manipulate a worksheet or worksheets once you have declared the worksheet as a variable. In the example below, we rename Sheet1 and Sheet2.
Sub WorksheetObject() Dim wks1 As Worksheet Dim wks2 As Worksheet 'initialize the objects Set wks1 = Sheet1 Set wks2 = Sheet2 'rename the sheets wks1.Name = "Customers" wks2.Name = "Products" 'set the objects to nothing wks1 = Nothing wks2 = Nothing End Sub
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The Range object is one of the most useful objects to manipulate in Excel. In the example below, we bold Range A1 to E1 and format it with a bottom border.
Sub RangeObject() Dim rng1 As Range 'intialize the range Set rng = Range("A1:E1") 'bold the range and set the bottom border rng.Font.Bold = True With rng1.Borders(xlEdgeBottom) .LineStyle = xlContinuous .ColorIndex = 0 .TintAndShade = 0 .Weight = xlThin End With End Sub
You can also use object variables to work with shapes.
Sub AddShape() Dim shp As Shape 'create the shape Set shp = ActiveDocument.Shapes.AddShape(msoShapeSmileyFace, 68.25, 225.75, 136.5, 96#) With shp 'change inside colour and style .Fill.ForeColor.RGB = RGB(255, 255, 0) .Fill.Solid 'adjust the smile! .Adjustments.Item(1) = 0.07181 End With End Sub